Pollution and health effects: A nonparametric approach. Από κοινού με G. Argyropouulou (2020).

Pollution is associated with serious environmental and health problems. For instance particulate matter (PM2.5) causes severe health problems like respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and outdoor exposure may be carcinogenic to humans. In this study Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to estimate the efficiencies of 18 European countries for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Directional distance function (DDF) is utilized to deal with undesirable outputs.