Dynamics of productivity taking into consideration the impact of energy consumption and environmental degradation. Energy Policy 120: 276-283

This study deals with the nonparametric frontier analysis in the case of the EU 28 countries for a period spanning from 1993 to 2015. It provides statistical inference about the radial output based measure of technical efficiency under the assumption of Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) and it performs scale analysis that allows determining the nature of scale inefficiency of each data point. Furthermore, an order-α approach is developed for determining partial frontiers.