air pollution

The channels of the effect of government expenditure on the environment: evidence using dynamic panel data. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

This paper explores the relationship between government spending and environmental quality using panel data for 94 countries for the period 1970–2008. We identify and estimate three distinct channels that comprise the total direct effect of government expenditure on air pollution, namely a marginal effect, an effect conditional on economic growth and an effect conditional on institutional quality.