undesirable variables

Modeling energy and air pollution health damaging: a two-stage DEA approach. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

Various pollutants can cause serious health problems. One of these pollutants is sulfur dioxide which is associated with respiratory problems in humans. In this study, two-stage DEA method is used to estimate the efficiencies of 23 countries for the time period 1990–2017, using capital, labor, and energy consumption as inputs, GDP as a desirable intermediate which is going out of the system, and sulfur oxides as an undesirable intermediate and respiratory disease deaths as an undesirable output.