Population, economic growth and regional environmental inefficiency: Evidence from U.S. states. Forthcoming in Journal of Cleaner Production. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.038
Population, economic growth and regional environmental inefficiency: Evidence from U.S. states. Journal of Cleaner Production 112(5): 4288-4295 (SCOPUS, ISI listed. Impact factor: 3.844 and 5-year: 4.167). In common with D. Stern and N. Tzeremes (2016).
We apply a conditional directional distance function allowing multiple exogenous factors to measure environmental performance. We evaluate the air pollution performance levels of U.S. states for the years 1998 and 2008. States’ environmental inefficiency is determined by population size and GDP per capita (GDPPC). The overall results reveal that there is much variation in environmental inefficiencies among the U.S. states. A second stage nonparametric analysis indicates a nonlinear relationship between states’ population size, GDPPC levels and states’ environmental inefficiency levels. Our results indicate that states’ GDPPC levels have a ‘U’-shape relationship with states’ environmental inefficiency. The results also reveal that highly populated states tend to increase environmental inefficiency but this effect is dependent also on states’ GDPPC levels.